Hello, and thank you for attending the CRCS Seminar. As promised, electric thermometers and red alloy wiring kits are included in everyone's package as a part of the cost of the seminar.
I'm sure you are here to hear about the new CRCS systems, likely having heard such things as 'CASUC 2.0'. The truth is... far more complex. There are many engineering challenges involved with a CRCS system.
In fact, that does bring me to a point. The CRCS system is not one which is designed for beginners. There are many fault-points in any CRCS system. Running and maintaining a CRCS system will absolutely require an in-depth knowledge in the following fields: Nuclear engineering, logistical networking, pneumatic engineering, redstone wiring, logic circuitry, mechanical engineering, and possibly LUA coding as well.
If you don't have at least a solid understanding with reference materials for these topics, I would strongly advise you to take this final opportunity to depart with a partial refund now. A HAYO Corp. agent is just outside with design specifications for their Mk. I Reactor line, which are far easier to set up and employ, and will meet the needs of most consumers.
Anyone else? There's no shame in acknowledging your limitations.
All right, now let's get down to the brass tacks.
HISTORY AND CONCEPTS
CRCS stands for Continuously Re-applied Coolant System, and its roots do stem from the old CASUC system, or Continuously Applied Single Use Coolant. However, as the only single-use coolant which works with current generation reactors consumes copious quantities of redstone or lapis, it is no longer economically viable for most situations. So alternatives were explored.
The basic concept of the CRCS is a radical departure from standard Nuclear Engineering protocols. Rather than try to dissipate the entirety of the heat generated from nuclear fission, components are used to store the heat. Before the components exceed safe levels, the reactor is temporarily disabled and the 'expended' components are transferred to one or more 'cooling towers' which have no fissionable materials but significant cooling potential.
This allows you to disperse your heat to a far larger heat sink, and enables the CRCS system to handle far higher heat levels than any traditional reactor to date, which means producing Energy Unit output far higher than any Mk. I reactor, capable of meeting or even exceeding old-school CASUC levels. The downside, however, is the massive infrastructure and initial investment of resources required to build such a system. As every cooling tower is effectively its own reactor, the costs involved are non-trivial. Having said that, most CRCS systems have a higher efficiency rating than a traditional Mk. I reactor, so maintenance costs are actually lower than one would expect. However, it would take a great deal of time to achieve the break-even point on initial cost versus maintenance cost savings.
The very first CRCS system was the old and antiquated DDoS Alpha reactor as seen here. It employed 60k Cooling Cells to store the heat, which were then transferred into the classic Coolmaster tower found on the following page.
While it was able to exceed even the EU output of a CASUC reactor, there were several problems with the system. First and foremost, it required 24 cooling cells per cycle, and with a cooling of 12-16 heat per cell per second, it required a huge number of cooling towers. Quite frankly, it was not economically viable.
Later DDoS reactors would scale it down to more manageable levels. Still exceeding the EU/t and Eff ratings of Mk. I reactors, but requiring far fewer cooling cells and far fewer cooling towers to accommodate them. Some designs also employed Neutron Reflector caps on the uranium rods to normalize heat dissipation values and increase efficiency, albeit with a higher maintenance cost, due to the neutron reflectors needing to be replaced periodically.
The next advance in CRCS technology came from an innovator by the name of Kenken244, who introduced the HVC (Heat Vent Cycle) reactor. He realized that while the Overclocked Heating Vent could only hold a fraction of the heat a 60k Cooling Cell could, they were self-cooling. This resulted in the original HVC design, found here.
Since OC Vents cool themselves 20 heat/second, employing them in a Coolmaster tower more than doubled, nearly tripled in fact, the cooling per component. The downside is the dangerously narrow safety margins. The designer suggested a one-second micro-cycle, and any sort of server lag could have disastrous consequences. However, the cost savings in having so many fewer cooling towers was quite attractive, making it a very viable option.
You can also use an empty reactor as a cooling tower for an HVC unit, which dramatically slashes costs by doubling the space available per cooling tower, as well as the cost savings in all the component heat vents you don't need. While it cools down slower, it is also able to be far more compact.
HAYO Corp. developed the next innovation in CRCS systems, the hybrid generator reactor. In essence, they employ cooling units in the generator reactor in addition to 60k coolant cells to increase the micro-cycle time. Focusing on reducing the copper expenditures required on the quad-cell reactors, they produced the CRCS Mk-1-EB-3.93 and the CRCS Mk-1-EA-4.5 reactors.
The significant advantage of the first is that it only uses regular Uranium Cells, instead of dual or quad cells, meaning far less copper and tin is consumed per cycle, further reducing maintenance costs. In fact, if one has access to certain bee species which produce tin and uranium, the entire system is completely renewable. The second system produces more EU/t, and still doesn't rely on quad cells which the DDoS reactors employ, resulting in a noticable savings in copper.
In rebuttal, ShneekeyCraft Inc. released an HVC design here which used a single Coolmaster Tower. With a 50 second micro-cycle, HVC may have found a new life in budged CRCS reactors.
The other truly revolutionary advance which HAYO Corp. published was a radically new cooling tower design philosophy. Kenken244 came up with the original design, which uses a fair amount of gold in the cooling tower in OC vents and component heat exchangers, as shown here. However, considering it gets a revolutionary 95 cooling per cell per second, it is well worth the expense. The only problem is the limited capacity. Most of these ultra-cooling towers only have a capacity for 4-6 cells at a time, requiring multiple cooling towers per cycle for some of the larger reactors.
These innovations, in turn, caused a radical re-design of the DDoS reactors, which also started employing OC vents and component heat exchangers to push the micro-cycle time.